Taliba, Articles, & Drafts (Fenkell Papers, Box 1, Folder 19)


Taliba, Articles, & Drafts (Fenkell Papers, Box 1, Folder 19)


Select issues of the Taliba Newsletter, detailing Ferdinand Marcos' canceled trip to the U.S., Military bases in the Philippines, US-Philippine extradition policies, and general policies of the Regan and Carter administrations.






For other purposes, please contact Bulosan Center archivist Jason Sarmiento at ajsarmiento@ucdavis.edu. 







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(News Flash/ Commentary )


(formerly the Anti-Martial Law Coalition-Philippines, AMLC)

Volume VI, Number 1

January, 1982


US-RP Extradition Treaty









Filipinos in the United States are faced with an imme-

the power to determine whether an act is political or

diate danger. The Marcos government and the Reagan

not. As everyone knows, Marcos can have a heyday with this

administration are preparing the ground for an extradition

provision alone!

process which will enable the dictatorship to retaliate

Even if ratified, the treaty can not be immediately

against its critics here. Extradition is a process by which a

implemented because some of its provisions contradict the

person in another country is arrested and sent to the

present U.S. Extradition law. However, Marcos' friends are

requesting country to face trial. Once in operation, this

coming to the rescue. The State Department is working with

extradition process could inhibit the free expression of

Congress conservatives such as Sen. Strom Thurmond to

political beliefs in the Filipino community here. It could

change this law so that it can accomodate the US-RP

mean the legalized extension of martial rule to the communi-

treaty and others like it. There are now bills (HR 5227; SB

ty in the U.S.

1639) prepared by the State Department and its allies

pending in Congress which if passed will transfer the power


to determine whether a crime is political or not, from the

The US-RP Extradition Treaty now awaiting ratification in

courts to the Secretary of State. In addition, if the bills

the Senate will make it possible for Marcos to ask for the

become law. a person accused of an extraditable crime can

extradition of Filipino and U.S. citizens deemed to have

be immediately jailed for up to 60 days-at the mere

committed acts that are considered crimes by both the

request of a foreign government!

Philippines and the U.S. These include crimes which are not

listed in the treaty and which the two governments may even


have different names for. Also. a person who may not even

Yet Marcos has not even waited for the treaty to be

have set foot in the Philippines could be extradited if

ratified to begin extradition proceedings against U.S. based

charged with conspiracy, for example. In extradition procee-

opponents. On Jan. 5, Marcos issued arrest warrants for 40

dings, hearsay is accepted evidence. The US-RP treaty

persons many of whom are living in the U.S. (Bulletin

supposedly excludes political crimes from extradition.

Today, 1/6/82). The list includes Benigno Aquino, MFP's

But it allows the Executive Branches of both countries

Raul Manglapus. Steve Psinakis and CAMD's Rene Cruz.

The wanted persons are accused of terrorist bombings


and/or being members of "subversive groups". Manila

The impact of the extradition treaty on the Filipino

announced that the extradition of the U.S. residents will

community is clear. It is not enough that the Consulates are

begin as soon as the treaty is ratified, and of course, as soon

already functioning as spy networks in the community-the

as the U.S. extradition law is changed. Clearly, with the

treaty calls on U.S. state agencies to descend on politically

treaty Marcos is not so much interested in going after

active Filipinos at the request of the Marcos regime. Just the

businessman who are running away from debts, but after his

thought of being investigated by the FBI for possible

political opponents.

extradition is already traumatic for most people. The treaty

How did Marcos determine who should be extradited?

will strengthen Marcos' capacity to intimidate the commu-

With the direct assistance of Sec. Haig who helped arrange

nity into silence. Already politically timid, the community

the current Grand Jury and FBI investigations of the

will be further discouraged from exercising their democratic

Psinakises in connection with the Manila bombings. He had

rights here. The negative effect of this will be felt not only in

other equally appaling assistance as well. To prove that

Phil.-related political activities but even in the struggle

others who may not be linked to the bombings are "subver-

against discrimination.

sives" nonetheless, Marcos used the testimony of LA

The CAMD is not going to stand by and let the Reagan-

Consul Armando Fernandez. The consul admitted in a

Marcos assault bulldoze the community's democratic rights

Manila court that part of his job is to spy on community

without a fight. It has launched the National Committee in

activities here. The subversive group he says, includes the

Opposition to the US-RP Extradition Treaty which

KDP, AMLC (now CAMD), and the MFP. He reported that

includes many Filipino community leaders as well as well-

their "subversive activities" include demonstrations, the

respected scholars and personalities such as Richard Falk,

distribution of literature critical of the regime, fundraising

Professor of International Law at Princeton, Nobel laureate

for anti-Marcos groups back home and "festivals called

George Wald and actor Edward Asner, president of the

Philippine National Day." The grim message then is, even

Screen Actors Guild. The Committee is asking everyone to

for constitutionally protected activities that Fernandez

write letters to the Senate opposing the extradition treaty

reported, one can be the target of extradition.

and the proposed changes in the extradition law (see

addresses below). Even if the treaty pushes through, the


CAMD will fight every attempt by Reagan and Marcos to

Why is the Reagan administration cooperating in the

use it for political ends.

importation of martial rule to the U.S. Filipino community?

The CAMD is calling on all Filipinos to defend their

It fits in very nicely with his own foreign policy. When he

democratic rights by exercising them. Consulate spies must

declared war on "international terrorism" he did not mean

be exposed, isolated and ostracized. All attempts by US

war with Marcos, Chile's Pinochet, S. Korea's Chun, Haiti's

agencies to harass people for their political beliefs must be

Duvalier or El Salvador's Duarte who are all protecting U.S.

made public. The extradition treaty must be defeated. The

interests in their respective countries. Reagan meant war

CAMD has always said that U.S. Filipinos are very much a

on their opponents, whose resistance to dictatorial rule is

part of the fight for freedom in the homeland. The Marcos-

now being painted with the broad brush of "terrorism".

Reagan attempt to muzzle the community is driving home

Resistance to America's dictator friends, under Reagan's

this very point. The Filipino community must show that it

foreign policy, is now being called a crime-not a political

has no intention of abandoning the people back home. It

act. No wonder Sec. of State Alexander Haig supported the

must staunchly oppose the US-RP Extradition Treaty and

proposed changes in the extradition law by telling Congress

Reagan's unjust foreign policy.

that these changes are crucial if the U.S. is to be able to

honor its "international obligations."

Filipinos are not the only victims of this foreign policy.

Already, Salvadoran and Haitian refugees are being deported


back to certain persecution and even death. The recently


imprisoned U.S.-based anti-Duvalier rebels will be facing


extradition. Meanwhile, the "friendly" anti-Castro terrorists who

are openly training in Florida are left untouched. Reagan is

also reviewing other extradition treaties "to modernize"

them, which means the democratic rights of many more

communities are going to be undermined.

Oppose House Bill 5227

Oppose the Ratification of the US-RP Extradition

Write to:


House Judiciary Committee

Write to:

Sub-Committee on Crime

Senate Foreign Relations Committee

c/o Cong. William Hughes

c/o Sen. Charles Percy

U.S. Congress

U.S. Congress

Washington.D.C. 20501

Washington. D.C. 20501




Contact your Local CAMD:


(formerly AMLA)


Geline Avila


Walden Bello


National Co-coordinators

P. O. Box 173

2108 57 TH AVENUE

Oakland, CA 94668


(916) 428- 7856


(News Flash/Commentary )


(formerly the Anti-Martial Law Coalition-Philippines, AMLC)





thereby increasing the number of


seats available (to entice larger

rural participation in the plebis-

The Filipino people need another

cite ; the exercise is also supposed

to increase the size of public

plebiscite like a hole in the head, but

lands available for "land reform").

for the Reagan administration, the Janu-

Clearly the centerpiece of

ary27 plebiscite marks the first step in

the "normalization plan" is the

the U. S. maneuver to maintain its grip on

IBP. It is the key mechanism for

the Philippines now that the political

a smooth and credible succession

strength of its faithful ally-Marcos- is

from now until 1987.

Its Speaker

rapidly deteriorating.

is to preside over the transition

The dictator has not been able to

from a discredited U. S. ally to a

wash his hands of Aquino's blood. The pop-

new set of U.S. allies. The IBP

ular clamor for his resignation is piercing

must, therefore, be deodorized and

his ears. On top of this, the bottom has

cleansed of its image as a Marcos

fallen out of the economy. Marcos is trap-

rubberstamp .

ped. His political isolation has become

With "clean elections" on May


14th, meaning an increase in the

Seeing that their ally has become a

number of opposition seats from the

liability, Marcos' U.S. sponsors are not

measly 12 that exist now, the U.S.

wasting any time embarking on a "normal-

hopes to rid the IBP from the Marco

ization plan" to ease the situation as well

regime's pervasive stink.

With a

as to assure the continuity of their domin-

new and "clean" image for the IBP

ant influence on Philippine affairs.


Marcos ill and lacking any credibility,

the US hopes to keep the restive

they must secure a suitable guardian of U. S.

Filipino public at bay. It could

interests in the country. How can the mass

give Marcos a few more years in

protests be neutralized? Who will protect

power or the opportunity for Marcos

the U. S. bases? These are the concerns pre-

to gracefully "retire" should the

occupying the U. S. White House with regard

heated protests persist.

to the Philippine situation.




At first, Marcos balked at these


"political reforms" suggested by

Washington, intent as he was on des-

In their view, the scheduled May elec-

ignating Imelda as his successor an

tions to the Interim National Assembly (IBP)

on monopolizing political power at

may be the answer. The May election could

all costs . But through "silent di-

give the appearance of the restoration of

plomacy", Washington put on the pres

democratic processes and at the same time,

sure , even sending Reagan's hatchet

put into place a key mechanism for an order

men, John Monjo , General Vernon

ly succession from Marcos to a new set of

Walters, and ominously, former CIA

U. S. -backed beaurocrats.

Washington hopes

coup expert Col. Edward Lansdale

that the process would pacify a population

to Malacanang.

clamoring for an end to Marcos' one man

US Ambassador, Michael Arma-

rule .

cost, has been busy giving warning

The January 27th plebiscite is meant

signals to Marcos to toe the US

to give a "legal blessing" to the ground-

line. As well, Armacost has been

works necessary for a credible election in

busy meeting opposition leaders in

May. It is supposed to amend Marcos' con-

his Forbes Park backyard, trying

stitution abolishing the Executive Commit-

convince them to cooperate with

tee for succession and re- instituting in-

the US normalization scenario.

stead, the Vice-Presidency in 1987. Mean-

Without too many options left,

while, should Marcos die or become incapac-

Marcos has decided to go along-

itated before 1987, the IBP Speaker is sup-

he cannot risk increasing the dis

posed to take over, convene a caretaker

pleasure of his US godfather d

government, and call for elections in 60

these times . Begrudgingly, he

days. The plebiscite is also supposed to

offerthe above mentioned co.

call for representation to the IBP from its

sions to the legal oppositi

regional character to a provincial one,

betraying the hollowness of t.

concessions, he quickly announced his

intentions to secure sweeping electoral

refuse to man the polls or again be

victories for his KBL party. He has

coerced into becoming the regime's in-

even gone so far as to predict that only

strumentsfor defrauding the people.

20-30 IBP seats will to to the opposition.


Despite the strong wave of sentiments


for a boycott, some of the traditional


opposition are still wafflict have

But concession or no concession,

ill-concieved hopes for the coming

the Filipino people cannot be pursuaded


that his next visit to the polls will be

Salvador Laurel's United Nationalist

any different from the last ones.

Democratic Organization (UNIDO) is giv-

They know they don't need any

ing "democracy one last try". As if

Pleb-bwisit to amend the 1973 constitu-

there is any real democracy in being

tion cooked up by Marcos, and that what

part of a rubberstamp body . Laurel has

they need is to junk that charter alto-

warned that a boycott will bring the


country "a step closer to violent con-

Neither are they fooled with elec-

frontation", as if the regime is not

tions held under the tight reins of the

violent enough and as if another elec-

repressive U. S. -Marcos alliance. They .

tion will minimize the violence that

know that this coming electoral farce

has already bloodied the doorstep of

is only meant to paint a new layer of

the legal opposition.

cosmetics on the hated face of the regime.

The Nationalista Party, the Liberal

As for the IBP, there is the joke

Party, and PDP, LABAN have thrown their

that it does not say yes to Marcos all

hats in the ring, despite the fact that

the time; it also says no - when Marcos

some of their own prominent peers, like

says no. No amount of laundering will

Senator Jovito Salonga and former Pres-

wash away IBP's rubberstamp image , for

ident Diosdado Macapagal, have tagged

the very existence of this body depends

this election as another attempt to

largely on Marcos' own arbitrary powers.

legitimize the regime.



The organized opposition in the

The growing boycott movement is a

Philippines is quick to show that it can-

concrete expression of the Filipino

not be fooled by the US-Marcos maneuver.

people's rejection of the new US-

To Washington's dismay, the movement to

Marcos "normalization plan", No amount

boycott the plebiscite and the May elec-

of sugarcoating will cover up the US'

tion is already gaining momentum.

real motive. No amount of cosmetics can

Demanding no less than dismantling

beautify the bloated face of a regime

the US-Marcos dictatorship, the National

sinking in a terminal crisis.

Alliance for Justice, Freedom and Democ-

We, Filipinos in the US and Canada,

racy is exposing the coming elections as

must continue to be vigilant to not

one more deception aimed at legitimizing

fall for the media hype which has al-

an illegal government and an illigitimate

ready begun to surround the plebiscite


and the IBP election. We must frustrate

An official of the Alliance, Father

the renewed attempts of the Reagan

Joe Dizon states "the people do not

administration to convince world opin-

need the Batasang, only the regime

ion that these electoral exercises

needs it."

will bring the Filipino peoples' lives

The prestigious Catholic Bishops

"back to normal" or that they consti-

Conference of the Philippines issued

tute the first steps toward "demo-

a statement approving the peoples'


"moral right" to join the boycott.

It is by consistently supporting

The National Priests and Religious

the real demands of the Filipino

Union and the Concerned priests of

people that we can contribute our

Manila have endorsed the boycott. So

share in their struggle for real

have Kaakbay, a nationalist grouping

democracy. Marcos and his one-man

led by Jose Diokno, and the Justice

laws must go. Political freedoms

for Aquino, Justice for All Movement

must be genuinely restored. Polit-

(JAJAM) led by Lorenzo Tanada, which

ical prisoners must be released. U.S.

sprang out of the frenzied events

interference in Philippine internal

following the Aquino assassination.

affairs must end.

By a majority vote of 2, 000 dele-

The plebiscite is meaningless.

gates, the Congreso Ng Mamamayang

The May election --a deception.

Pilipino (CONPIL) decided to boycott


unless Marcos satisfies five impor-

Write your families and friends

tant requirements, including the re-

back home to support the boycott

peal of his power to issue decrees and


to detain anyone indefinitely without



Write to your representatives

CONPIL's chairman, Agapito Aquino,

in the US Congress.

brother of the slain senator, boasts

of having members "as far right as



Cardinal Sin and as far left as Jose


Maria Sison."


Sectoral organizations have joined



the boycott movement: Progressive

PO. BOX 17:3


Labor Federation, Kilusang Mayo Uno , KMU,




and the Alliance of Concerned Teachers,


info on educationals , video

materials , housemeetings

who have declared that teachers will


(News Flash/Commentary )

A Publication of the Anti-Martial Law Coalition (Philippines)

VOLUME 3, Number 2



Carter to Host Philippine Dictator-


Two recent events leave no doubt as to the character of the Philippine martial law regime on the one

hand and the substance of the human rights foreign policy of the Carter Administration on the other.

On February 1, Agence France Presse reported that Philippine dictator Marcos is scheduled to visit the

U.S. sometime in late February or early March upon the invitation of President Carter. This report was

followed by a State Department report dated February 8, admitting that the Marcos regime uses torture,

even murder, in dealing with dissidents to its unpopular rule.

against the widespread opposition to the martial law


For his part, the dictator can now breathe easier with

this assurance of continued U.S. support for his one-man

rule. He has now shamelessly dropped all nationalist

posturing laying bare for the whole world to see, his

unmistakeable dependence to the U.S. Among his heinous

crimes against the Filipino people will now count the

selling of Philippine sovereignty in exchange for the

dubious privilege of flying a Philippine flag over the bases

and having a Filipino commander whose only duty will be

to "command" that portion of the bases where there are

no military facilities.

Hand in hand with these "paper changes," the dictator

is now prattling about returning the country back to

normalcy. It has for instance dangled the promise of local

elections to a population that is understandably cynical

about any "democratic processes" under a regime that

has continuously attempted to legitimize itself in five

referenda and one national election through the twin use

of fraud and armed force.

The planned visit to the U.S. is no doubt meant to cap

Both reports are significant. While the revelation of the this normalization scheme by making the Filipino people

regime's human rights record comes as no big surprise to

and the American people believe that things are indeed

many since the Marcos dictatorship has long been

back to normal.

denounced by human rights watchdog agencies such as

But it will take more than a dinner at the White House

Amnesty International, International Commission of to disguise the fascist character of the Marcos regime. No

Jurists, what is more revealing is the fact that its sordid talk of normalization can hide the fact that under this

record has in no way discouraged that purported human bankrupt dictatorship, close to one million Filipinos have

rights advocate, the Carter Administration, from extend- been turned into refugees by its brutal military campaigns

ing an invitation to the Philippine dictator.

and no less inhuman economic policies that place foreign

The State Department while neither confirming nor

investment over the needs of the Filipino people. Being

denying the report can only lamely say that the visit is not hosted by Jimmy Carter will not add any shine to its

an official state visit, but a "private" one. Nonetheless,

tarnished image as a gross violator of human rights, a

they did admit that a reception is being planned for the regime that solves the problem of political prisoners by

dictator by the White House.

the simple expedient of not taking any political prisoners

This stance of officially keeping at arm's length the

- alive.

brutal dictatorship while objectively supporting it, is

The Filipino people and all progressive people of this

typical of the Carter Administration's hypocritical foreign

country must give this dictator the reception he deserves.

policy. While making loud pronouncements about human

We must teach this dictator that wherever he goes, he has

rights as the cornerstone of its foreign policy, in the same

to account for his crimes against the Filipino people.

breath it concludes an agreement with the repressive

Likewise, we must teach Jimmy Carter that his pious

dictator which in essence extends its lifeline for the next

preachings about human rights has long been exposed as

five years. In the beginning of this year, President Carter

all hot air and no muscle. We must expose the dictator

and President Marcos announced an executive agreement

Marcos and Jimmy Carter as the biggest "human rights

regarding the U.S. bases in the Philippines which

masqueraders" of our time. _

provides for over $1 billion compensation to the Marcos


regime. This financial commitment (which cleverly took


the form of an executive agreement thus skirting any

discussion of this controversial issue in the U.S. Congress


where it was expected to meet staunch opposition) is

thinly disguised U.S. aid to the isolated regime whose

Sacramento AMLA Center

existence would otherwise be in jeopardy. The new

2108 - 57th Avenue

agreement is also ominous because it increases the

Sacramento, CA 95822

likelihood of direct U.S. military intervention in the

Philippine internal affairs by providing legal justification

(916) 428-7856 or (916) 966-5698

for U.S. participation in counterinsurgency operations


(News Flash/Commentary )

A Publication of the Anti-Martial Law Coalition (Philippines)

VOL. 3, NO. 3

APRIL 1979


AMLC Pressure Succeeds-

Marcos Cancels U.S. Visit in Fear of Protests

President Marcos' planned state visit coincided

with the recently concluded U.S.-R.P. Military

Bases Agreement signed in January, 1979.

Under the guise of "bases rental" for such

facilities as Subic Naval Base (right), Marcos

received a 150% increase ($500 million for the

(picture credit; Harvard Magazine)

next five years) in U.S. aid, plus $1 billion in

economic aid.

Aerial view of Subic Naval Base in Olongapo, Zambales Province, Philippines.

Recent issues of rabid pro-Marcos newspapers

Aside from the horse's mouth, so to speak, the

such as Filipino Reporter and the Bataan News

other reliable sources of AMLC include:

(based in Stockton, Calif.) have accused the

Agence France Presse in its Jan. Ist news release

anti-martial law movement, the Anti-Martial Law

reported that Marcos was coming in early March.

Coalition in particular, of spreading "rumors" and

Last Feb. 22, a member of the Congress

engaging in idle speculation with regards to the

Education Project (CEP, an organization based in

Marcos state visit to Washington, D.C., originally

Washington, D.C.), called an aide of Hal Brooke

projected to be in March. A look at the facts,

(Undersecretary of State) whose response was

however, will show that this is not the case. In fact

'maybe, but not official."

it is the Marcos-controlled media itself which was

On March 1, CEP also called Rep. Lester Wolf's

the first to trumpet Marcos' upcoming visit by

aide who confirmed that Marcos was coming

floating trial balloons. Teodora Valencia, well-

mid-March to late March to "appeal to the

known for his his "close ties" with the Philippine

business community." (By this, we assume for

dictator (like mouthing the dictator's line on all

further penetration of U.S. investment in the

issues without fail) raised in a February issue of


the Filipino Reporter that, "It's about time Marcos

Several calls were also placed to the State

comes to the U.S." Another publication, the

Department by congresspeople nationwide, upon

ASIAWEEK, also well-known for having close ties

the prodding of anti-martial law alliances who sent

to Malacanang, in its Feb. 23, 1979 issue wrote :

delegates to their representatives and senators.

"When would Marcos go? A presidential aide told

The State Department at various times confirmed

ASIA WEEK's Antonio Lopez that his boss "has a.

the visit ("It's a private visit.") and, not

standing invitation from Carter . . .


unexpectedly tried to remain vague about the

sources intimated that the date would be either in

whole affair.

spring or summer, "that is, sometime between

As the above information shows, contrary to

March and August. Insiders, however, are betting

what the pro-Marcos papers want us to believe,

on next month. .

these are hard facts not based on "rumors" nor



(News Flash/Commentary )

A Publication of the Anti-Martial Law Coalition (Philippines)










The Filipino people have repeatedly demanded the removal of U.S. bases from Philippine soil.

On New Year's Day, 1979, President Jimmy Carter fully exposed the hypocrisy of his well-publicized

concern for human rights along with his pretense of mild disapproval for the regime of President Ferdinand

E. Marcos of the Philippines. On that day, Carter and Marcos announced the conclusion of several years

negotiations over U.S. bases in the Philippines. Proudly they revealed that the governments of the two

countries had arrived at an "Executive Agreement" concerning the bases. Key points of this agreement

involve the payment of $500 million in "compensation" to the Marcos government over the next five years

and certain superficial changes billed as increased Philippine control over the bases.

The agreement reveals the undeniable collusion

$475 million is pure military aid to the Marcos regime.

between Carter and Marcos - two cronies who, for over

For the next three years, the agreement mandates a full

a year, have performed a sometimes convincing act of

$125 million per year as "compensation" in addition to

mutual dislike.

the $37 million which is part of the regular U.S. military

Deception runs through every aspect of the new

assistance to the Philippines. This will bring U.S.

"Excecutive Agreement." Major changes have been

military assistance to the repressive Marcos regime up to

made in the 1947 Bases Treaty. Chief among these is the

$162 million, over four times the current figure.

payment of rent - which has been innocently labeled

But why have the negotiators been forced to adopt

'compensation" - to the Marcos government. Yet in

such patently undemocratic and deceptive tactics to

spite of what is actually a treaty renegotiation, the Carter

achieve their goals and to tack on to their agreement a

Administration has carefully labeled the outcome not a

series of measures which are supposedly designed to

new "treaty," but an "Executive Agreement."

insure a measure of Philippine control over the bases?

This seemingly trifling difference is tremendously

The answer lies in the unpopularity of the Marcos

important. A new treaty must be approved by the U.S.

dictatorship both in the Philippines and the United

Senate and be opened for discussion by the American

States. The repressive character of this faithful U.S. ally

people. An Executive Agreement is exactly what it

has made it both thoroughly hated at home and

says - an agreement between two heads of state. In one

extremely controversial in the United States. A new

careful choice of terms, the Carter-Marcos team has

treaty with the Philippine dictator would have stirred up

managed to avoid public discussion on a highly

a debate which might have proven uncomfortable for

controversial issue - whether the bases should remain in

both heads of state.

the Philippines at all, bypass the role of Congress in

The new "Agreement" claims that, through a series

approving major foreign policy decisions, and narrow the

of cosmetic moves, Philippine control over the

issue to a simple matter of Congressional approval over a

bases has been increased. Filipino base commanders

budget appropriation. Brilliant!

are to be installed and each base will fly the

Even the terms of the "Agreement" itself are

Philippine flag. The land area of the base is to be

deceptive. The $500 million figure has been reported as

somewhat reduced. Perimeter security has been turned

combined economic and military aid. In fact, only $25

over to the Armed Forces of the Philippines with some

million is to be used for economic aid. The remaining

provisions for joint control in certain areas. Yet the

Taliba, January 1979

Page 2

'Agreement" contains not a word concerning Philippine

This damage is felt not only in broad social terms but

jurisdiction over American servicemen who commit

in specific military situations as well. The bases have

crimes against Filipinos. There is no guarantee

been used repeatedly for intervention in Philippine

whatsoever that American soldiers who in the future

affairs. Prior to the declaration of martial law,

mistake Filipinos for "wild boars" and kill them will not

Congressional testimony reveals they were used against

be abruptly transferred out of the country as in years

the Huks and, more recently, they have been used

past. This is Philippine control?

against the New People's Army. Immediately after the

Why has this charade of Philippine control over the

declaration of martial law in 1972, the entire modern

bases become necessary?

fighter component of the Philippine Air Force - a

Because the Filipino people have come increasingly to

squadron of F-5's - was based at Clark Air Field at a

see the U.S. bases in their homeland as, in the words of

time when it was reportedly carrying out bombing

the Civil Liberties Union of the Philippines, "an affront

missions over Isabela.

to Philippine sovereignty."

The Filipino people recognize that such intervention is

What is the role of the U.S. bases in the Philippines?

likely not only to continue, but to increase, as long as the

According to the 1947 bases agreement, their purpose

bases remain on their soil. The wording of the 1947

is two-fold: to "protect U.S. security interests in Asia"

treaty clearly invites the U.S. to slide into internal

and to "insure the territorial integrity of the Philip-

involvement in the Philippines without the slightest

pines. " Numerous spokesmen for the U.S. government,

obstacle. Whereas previously U.S. intervention in the

even several from the Department of Defense, however,

country has been indirect and covert, the new

have agreed with Filipino nationalists that external

"Agreement" with its cooperative security arrange-

aggression is not a threat to the Philippines. The bases

ments dramatically increases the possibility of direct and

thus remain principally to "protect U.S. security

open intervention. The "Agreement" brings one step

interests in Asia."

closer the possibility of sending U.S. troops to the

Filipinos have come increasingly to resent the role of

Philippines to intervene in the country's growing

these bases as launching pads for U.S. aggression and

domestic conflicts.

intervention in the internal affairs of other countries.

Not only do U.S. bases on Philippine soil invite U.S.

Filipinos wish to dissociate themselves altogether from

intervention in Philippine affairs, they represent a

situations like the Vietnam War when bombing missions

serious threat to the "territorial integrity of the

against the Vietnamese originated from Clark Air Base.

Philippines" which the Treaty claims they are supposed

Only a few days ago, on Dec. 29, 1978, the Defense

to protect. It has long been known that these bases are

Department announced that a naval task force and the

major storage sites for nuclear weapons. This makes

nuclear-capable carrier Constellation had left Subic

them into key strategic targets for any enemy of the

Naval Base enroute to the Indian Ocean. Speculation

U.S., should the U.S. be drawn into a major armed

suggested that its mission was to respond to develop-


ments in Iran and possibly to aid one of the world's most

The Filipino people have no desire to be blown to bits

despised dictators whose entire nation has risen up

in another man's war. Nor do they wish to have

against him.

foreigners, armed and strategically located on their own

Yet many have argued that the bases are actually

soil, intervene in their own affairs and dictate the course

beneficial to the Philippines because they provide both

of their history. The Filipino people do not need or want

employment for a large number of Filipinos and because

the economic impetus to turn their people into pimps,

base spending pumps dollars into the Philippine

prostitutes, dope-peddlers, and black marketeers. They

economy. Their removal, supporters of the bases have

do not want to see an inch of their territory used to

argued, would mean a massive economic dislocation.

launch aggressive action against peoples of other

The Filipino people have taken a closer look at the

countries. The Filipino people want the bases out. The

economic impact of the bases on the country and have

Anti-Martial Law Coalition full supports their desire and

come up with some surprising discoveries. The bases in

calls on all Filipino and American people to support their

fact employ less than one percent of the Philippine

demand to remove all U.S. bases from the Philippines.

non-agricultural labor force. Further, while it is true that

the base economy has a major impact on the Philippines,

Philippine economic and political institutions have

absolutely no control over it. The wages spent by

thousands of U.S. servicemen in the Philippines have a

highly inflationary effect. As one economist put it, they

"add to the total demand in the economy without

increasing the supply of new goods because the soldier

spends his pay on things he has not produced and the

munitions worker does not go out and buy a tank."

Filipinos have reexamined the character of the

so-called "growth industries" spawned by the bases.

Where have all those dollars pumped by U.S.

servicemen into the Philippine economy gone and what

has been the result socially? The principal industry

stimulated by the base economy has been prostitution


and related entertainment activities. Angeles City, site

of Clark Air Base, boasts of over 500 bars and brothels


Olongapo City, site of Subic Naval Base contains at least

Rene Cruz, National Coordinator

12,000 prostitutes who form a full 10 percent of the city's

P.O. Box 540


Woodside, N. Y. 11377

Another major industry spawned by the bases is the

(212) 898-1969

procurement and sale of illegal drugs to U.S.

servicemen. Since the Philippines does not produce

heroin, this has meant developing smuggling rings from


the "Golden Triangle" of Thailand and Burma. Another

flourishing base-related industry is the black market in


PX goods.

2108 57th Ave.

All three of these industries have stimulated a rise in




organized crime. They can hardly be labeled beneficial to

the Filipino people. In fact, the social damage these


Or 966-3593

institutions do is immeasurable.






August 1984.

One year after the Aquino assassination




It has been a year since thousands of festive yellow ribbons

Collantes leads a group of 30 KBL and independent parliament

which were to herald a welcome for the returning opposition leader,

tarians in supporting Aquilino Pimentel's resolution demanding

Benigno Aquino, Jr., suddenly unfurled into giant banners that

the repeal of Amendment No. 6 of the Marcos-engineered

screamed outrage over his assassination at the Manila Inter-

Constitution. Amendment No. 6 gives Marcos power to make laws

national Airport.

beyond the reach of the Assembly or the judiciary.

Today, the dictator Ferdinand Marcos faces essentially the

In an attempt to regain the support of businessmen and members

same political crisis that threatens the continuation of his absolute

of the traditional opposition, Marcos devised non-partisan calls for

rule. The agitation of the Filipino people to oust him and end the

them to join him in resolving the political and economic problems

dictatorship remains the catalyst that spells his doom.

plaguing his regime. But when he reconstituted his cabinet, the

same old familiar faces showed up, including that of his wife,

The downward spiral of the Philippine economy cannot be


arrested even as the Reagan administration infuses life-giving aid

and promises to release $180 million of the $900 million rental it

While the sham election momentarily divided the broad opposition

agreed to pay for the maintenance of U.S. military bases at Subic

into advocates of participation and those of boycott, the unanimous

and Clark. The long-awaited $650 million from the International

call for Marcos' ouster echoes both in the Batasan (Assembly),

Monetary Fund constitutes but another gasp before a fatal

and in the "parliament of the streets."


Marcos fully intends to widen the gap in the opposition by

In its desperation to stay in power for as long as it can, the

stepping up his strident anti-communist attacks and military

Marcos regime has narrowed down its choice to two alternate

violence against the militant protest movement. "It is not the

options: deception and military reprisal.

opposition who is the enemy of the people, but the subversives," he


But the Filipino people have not been waylaid in their deter-

mined path towards democratization. They have no other option.


On the opening day of the Batasan last July 23, 2,000 riot police


used truncheons, tear gas and pillbox bombs to scuttle a de-

The election of 65 opposition UNIDO candidates in the May 14

monstration of 25,000 people who came to listen to former senator

National Assembly election went beyond the 20 to 30 seats

Lorenzo Tanada give an address of the "true state of the nation.'

Marcos had predicted. Still it gave him reason to crow that

democracy has prevailed.

In the month preceding, Marcos had ordered a rapid succession

of repressive measures to put a lid on the unrest produced by a new

Although the rules are heavily stacked against the minority party

set of restrictive economic decrees which set prices rocketing and

in the Assembly, it has been bolstered by disgruntled members of

plunged the peso to P18 to $1.

Marcos' Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL) party. Manuel

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Date Added
April 16, 2021
Fenkell Family collection
Item Type
Taliba, “Taliba, Articles, & Drafts (Fenkell Papers, Box 1, Folder 19),” Welga Archive - Bulosan Center for Filipino Studies, accessed May 8, 2021, https://welgadigitalarchive.omeka.net/items/show/754.